What is LNG?
LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas
The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which could cause difficulty downstream. The Natural Gas is then condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa/3.6 psi) by cooling it to approximately −162°C (−260°F).
The reduction in volume makes it much more cost efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Where moving Natural Gas by pipelines is not possible or economical, it can be transported by specially designed cryogenic sea vessels (LNG carriers) or cryogenic road tankers.
NATURAL GAS IS OBTAINED FROM TWO PRIMARY SOURCES:
I) From Oil and Gas wells. In which most of the time Gas is mixed with the Oil, extracted and separated during the production. Natural Gas at the well is called Well Gas and most often it goes through special process of clean ups and purification to reach a uniform pipe line quality. For many of our clients, Natural Gas is a byproduct of Oil extraction and in many cases are considered hindrance, flared or not used efficiently.
Stranded Wells: Oil and Gas Wells that are distant from pipelines especially gas pipelines are called Stranded Wells. These Gas Wells are usually flared or wasted most likely due to expenses involved in the cost of gas processing facility, cost of transport via extended pipelines, and the regulatory / legal requirements. These Stranded Wells are one of our target markets.
II) Another major source of Natural Gas is through chemical decomposition in landfill waste. Chemical decomposition (Anaerobic digestion) generates significant amounts of Methane – also called Bio-Methane. Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen, through underground migration, can pose serious safety risks in nearby structures when the gases accumulate at concentrated levels. These gases generated in Landfills are not pure and have 35%-50% Methane or Bio-Methane; gases that must be captured, used, or burned off in flare stacks. Although ecologically harmful and 21 times more toxic than CO2, Methane and Bio-Methane are an efficient source of renewable energy when captured and refined into LNG.